The Scientific Method: Study Guide

       Chapter 1: The Scientific Method
       Lecture Slides: The Scientific Method
       Lecture Video: The Scientific Method
       Experiment: The Scientific Method

What is the role of empiricism in the scientific method?
What is deductive reasoning?
What is inductive reasoning?
How is the scientific method an interplay between deductive and inductive reasoning?
What are the components of a good scientific question?
In general, what is a scientific hypothesis?
Contrast null and alternative hypotheses.
Contrast pure causation, reverse causation , common causation, cyclic causation, indirect caustion, and coincidence.
What is the purpose of a scientific experiment?
How do experiments provide insight into causality?
What is an experimental replicate?
What is experimental treatment (or experimental variable)?
Contrast the control group and and experimental groups .
What is a controlled experiment?
What is the purpose of a placebo in a controlled experiment?
What is the benefit of a blind experiment?
What is the purpose of a negative control and a positive control in a controlled experiment
What is the difference between dependent and independent variables.
What is a natural experiment, and how do natural experiments differ from controlled experiments.
What two aspects of a data set do descriptive statistics summarize?
Describe three ways central tendency is measured.
In statistics, what is variability?
How does standard deviation define a data set?
With respect to standard deviation, why do experiments require many replicates?
What is statistical confidence , and how is standard deviation related to statistical confidence?
Contrast descriptive and inferential statistics.
How are inferential statistics used to conduct hypothesis testing after an experiment?