Chapter 5: Transcription and Translation

  1. What is transcription?
  2. What is translation?
  3. What goes into transcription? What comes out?
  4. What goes into translation? What comes out?
  5. What is a template strand? A coding strand?
  6. What direction is mRNA formed?
  7. What are the fundamental units of RNA known as? How are they different from the fundamental units of DNA?
  8. What are the bonds between RNA called?
  9. What enzyme synthesizes mRNA.
  10. Unlike DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase does not require a ___________ before transcription.
  11. How many RNA polymerases do Bacteria have? Eukaryotes?
  12. What is a sigma? How is it related to the RNA polymerase?
  13. What is required for transcription to begin?
  14. Why are the several different types of sigma?
  15. There are 5 steps of the initiation of transcription. What are they (in order)?
  16. What enzyme is working during the elongation phase of transcription?
  17. How does the termination phase of transcription occur?
  18. How is the RNA process different in eukaryotes vs. bacteria?
  19. What is pre-mRNA? What needs to be changed for it to be a functional molecule?
  20. What is an exon? Intron?
  21. What is RNA splicing? Does it happen in bacteria?
  22. Which are removed from pre-mRNA: introns or exons?
  23. How is translation at the ribosomes different for bacterial and eukaryotes?
  24. What is tRNA? What does it do? How is it different than mRNA?
  25. And is an anticodon? Where are the found? How is it related to a codon?
  26. Where does translation take place in a bacterium? A eukaryote?
  27. How are amino acids linked?
  28. What are ribosomes made of? What is their function?
  29. What is rRNA?
  30. What is the structure of the ribosome? What does the small subunit do? What does the large subunit do?
  31. What 3 steps of translation happen at the ribosome?
  32. What are the 3 steps of the initiation of translation?
  33. What are the 3 steps of the elongation of translation?
  34. What are the 3 steps of the termination of translation?