Chapter 19: The Evolution of Populations (part 2)

  1. What is divergence?
  2. What is the cause of divergence?
  3. Divergence can lead to _____.
  4. What is meant by an ancestral population?
  5. According to the biological species concept, species are _____.
  6. According to the morphospecies concept, species are _____.
  7. According to the phylogenetic species concept, species are _____.
  8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the biological species concept?
  9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the morphospecies concept?
  10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the phylogenetic species concept?
  11. What is an assumption of the morphospecies concept?
  12. If you are a bird watcher, which species concept do you employ?
  13. If you are a paleontologist, which species concept do you employ?
  14. If you are a bacteriologist, which species concept do you employ?
  15. If you are a conservation biologist, which species concept do you employ?
  16. What is a monophyletic group?
  17. What is a synapomorphy?
  18. How does a synapomorphy relate to a monophyletic group?
  19. What is the phylogenetic species concept based on?
  20. What is the smallest monophyletic group recognized by the phylogenetic species concept?
  21. Which species concept allowed us to determine that there are actually three extant species of elephants: the Asian, the African Savanna, and the African forest? Which concept of species is violated by this finding? Which is supported?
  22. How are subspecies different than species? How are subspecies different than populations?
  23. What is the difference between dispersal and vicariance? Be able to give examples of both.
  24. What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation?
  25. What are the mechanisms of allopatric speciation?
  26. How is sympatric speciation possible? Be able to give an example.
  27. What is polyploidy?
  28. What does 4n mean? 3n? 2n?
  29. What type of organisms is polyploidy commonly found?
  30. How can polyploidy cause rapid speciation?
  31. Why can’t diploids mate with tetraploids? How are they reproductively isolated?
  32. Why can’t mules produce viable offspring?
  33. How did they make seedless watermelons?
  34. What is the difference between autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy?
  35. The gametes of a diploid are _____. The gametes of a tetraploid are ____.
  36. Why are plants commonly polyploids?
  37. What happens when isolated populations come into contact?
  38. What can happen in a hybrid zone?