Chapter 3: Protein Structure and Function

  1. What are monomers?
  2. What is the most structurally sophisticated molecule we know of?
  3. What different biological functions do proteins have?
  4. What determines the function of a protein?
  5. What are the monomers of proteins?
  6. What are amino acids? 
  7. Draw a generic amino acid and label the amino group, carboxylic acid group, central carbon and R-group.
  8. What are the levels of protein structure; be able to identify them.
  9. Of the three groups of an amino acid, which one is different from amino acid to amino acid?
  10. How many amino acids are there on Earth?
  11. Chemically, how do R groups differ from each other?
  12. How are amino acids bonded together? What is the bond called? What type of bond is it: hydrogen, ionic, or covalent?
  13. What charge does the amino end of a polypeptide chain? What charge does the free carboxyl group have?
  14. What is a polypeptide, and how is it different than a protein?
  15. What forms the backbone of a polypeptide?
  16. What kind of chemical bonds does the R-group orientation of polypeptides determine its shape?
  17. What kind of chemical bonds make a polypeptide flexible?
  18. What is the chemical explanation of sickle cell anemia? What level of protein structure causes sickle cell anemia?
  19. How is primary protein structure different from secondary protein structure?
  20. What do a-helices and b-pleated sheets look like?
  21. What level of protein structure creates a-helices and b-pleated sheets?
  22. How is secondary protein structure different from tertiary protein structure?
  23. What level of protein structure creates irregular contortions?
  24. Chemical bonds between which part of the amino acid creates tertiary structure?
  25. How is tertiary protein structure different from quaternary protein structure?
  26. What is the process by which DNA codes for RNA?
  27. What is the process by RNA codes for the production of a protein?