Chapter 20: Population Ecology

  1. What is the definition of a population?
  2. What does a population ecologist study?
  3. What do population ecologists use as a predictive tool?
  4. What is demography?
  5. What four demographic factors that determine a population at a given time?
  6. Given original population size, births, death, immigration and emigration, be able to calculate the new population.
  7. What is a survivorship curve? What are the axes of a survivorship curve?
  8. What is the difference between a Type I, Type II, and Type III survivorship curve? Give examples of each.
  9. What is fecundity?
  10. How are fecundity and survivorship related?
  11. What does it mean by fitness trade-offs for the females of a species?
  12. Why do organisms have to allocate resources for fecundity and survivorship?
  13. Define growth rate. What is the equation for growth rate of a population?
  14. If the growth rate (r) is positive, what does that indicate about the population? Negative? Neutral?
  15. Define intrinsic rate of increase (ΔN). What is the equation for intrinsic rate of increase for a population?
  16. What conditions promote exponential growth of a population?
  17. What is a density independent population? Density dependent population?
  18. What conditions promote a scenario of density independence? Density dependence?
  19. Are humans currently experiencing density dependence or density independence?
  20. What is would an graph of exponential growth look like? What would a graph of logistic growth look like?
  21. What kind of graph is indicative of density independence? Density independence?
  22. What is the difference between r and K-selected species?
  23. What is a carrying capacity?
  24. What is the logistic growth equation?
  25. In a logistic growth graph, be able to identigy the r phase and K phase. In words, what is happening to the population during the r phase? K phase?
  26. Is density dependence usually biotically or abiotically controlled? Explain.
  27. How does carrying capacity vary?
  28. What is a metapopulation? How is it different from a population? How is it different than a community?
  29. What is the age structure of a population?
  30. How does age structure affect populations through time?
  31. Compare an age structure of a developed country and a developing country. How are the different? Why are the different?
  32. How is population momentum affecting the populations of developing nations?
  33. What are the major problems with the rapid expansion of the human population?