Chapter 5: Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes

  1. Lipids are a diverse group of molecules, what is the one thing that all lipids share in common?
  2. Chemically, why are lipids hydrophobic?
  3. What are the three main types of lipids in biological organisms?
  4. What is the biological function of fats?
  5. Fats are made of what two molecular components? Which one is hydrophobic?
  6. What is a glycerol?
  7. What is a fatty acid?
  8. Chemically, why is butter a solid at room temperature while oil is a liquid?
  9. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
  10. Molecularly, which one is more densely packed: saturated or unsaturated fats?
  11. Chemically, why are saturated fats harder for your body to break down than unsaturated fats?
  12. What is the difference between monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats?
  13. What is the difference between cis-unsaturated fats and trans-fats?
  14. Why are trans-fats so much more difficult to break down than cis-fats?
  15. Phospholipids have a ______ head and a ______ tail.
  16. What makes the tail of a phospholipid hydrophobic?
  17. What makes the head of a phospholipid hydrophilic?
  18. Phospholipids form what kind of structures in water?
  19. Draw a Liposome.
  20. Draw a micelle.
  21. Draw a phospholipid bilayer.
  22. What structure do all steroids share? What do they vary by?
  23. What is the precursor steroid that the body converts into other steroids into?
  24. Why are steroids important in animal growth and development?
  25. The cell membrane is selectively permeable. What does that mean?
  26. Draw a cross section of a cell membrane. What two types of molecules is the cell membrane made of?
  27. In water, which part of the phospholipids face the water (the outside of the bilayer)?
  28. What is the difference between passive and active transport?
  29. Which one uses ATP: passive or active transport?
  30. Which one goes from a low concentration to a high concentration: passive or active transport?
  31. Be able to look at a picture of cell transport and tell whether it is: simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, cotransport, active transport, exocytosis, or endocytosis.
  32. Osmosis is the _______ of water molecules across a permeable membrane.
  33. What is the difference between hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic?
  34. If you drink way too much water, what will you be: hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
  35. If you eat too much salt, what will you be: hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
  36. If you put a liposome filled with pure water into a sucrose solution, will the liposome become hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
  37. If you put a liposome filled with a sucrose solution into a pure water solution, will the liposome become hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
  38. If you put a liposome filled with pure water into a pure water solution, will the liposome become hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic?
  39. What is the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion?
  40. What type of molecules can pass the lipid bilayer via simple diffusion?
  41. What type of molecule can pass the lipid bilayer only via facilitated diffusion?
  42. What is the difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport?
  43. What is the difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis? Which is more specific (picky)?
  44. When is the best guess for when the first cell arose on Earth?
  45. What are three theories about how the first cell came to be?
  46. What is thought to be the first self-replicating molecule?
  47. What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
  48. Were the first cells thought to be autotrophs or heterotrophs?
  49. The simplest self-replicating cell needed a minimum of two components, what are they?