Chapter 19: Ecology and the Biosphere

  1. Define ecology.
  2. What are the 6 levels of ecology, from smallest to largest?
  3. If Charles Darwin considered himself an ecologist, which field of ecology would be fit best into?
  4. What does a population ecologist study? Give an example.
  5. What does a community ecologist study? Give an example.
  6. How is community ecology different from population ecology?
  7. What does an ecosystem ecologist study? Give an example.
  8. Which level of organisms ignores species?
  9. What is the range of species defined as?
  10. What is the primary determinant of a species range?
  11. Why are organisms limited to a specific range? Why don’t cacti grow in Canada?
  12. How do biotic factors play a role in a species range?
  13. How does competition affect a species' range?
  14. How does the sun’s angle of incidence vary by latitude?
  15. What causes the Earth’s seasons?
  16. What is the winter solstice? Summer solstice? Vernal equinox? Autumnal equinox?
  17. What is the degree of tilt of the Earth?
  18. Explain the Hadley cell: What happens at the equator? What happens at 30˚N? How does it affect precipitation?
  19. Why do air masses rise? What happens when air masses rise?
  20. Why do air masses fall?
  21. What happens to the water holding capacity as air masses rise and sink? What is the effect of this?
  22. How many global circulation patterns are their? What latitudes do they exist? What are their names?
  23. What is the climate like at 0˚? 30˚N? 60˚S? 90˚N?
  24. What are the contrasting consequences of the rain shadow effect?
  25. Give an example of where you might encounter a rain shadow effect.
  26. How does the heat capacity of water create the ocean moderation effect?
  27. Describe the temperature (mean & variability) and precipitation (mean & variability regimes for each of the following terrestrial biomes:
  28. Tropical rainforest
  29. Subtropical deserts
  30. Temperate forests
  31. Temperate grasslands
  32. Taiga
  33. Tundra
  34. What is the difference between a biome’s productivity and its biomass?
  35. Can a biome have high biomass and low productivity? If so, give an example.
  36. Can a biome have low biomass and high productivity? If so, give an example.
  37. Explain the plant productivity and biomass regimes for each of the following terrestrial biomes:
  38. Tropical rainforest
  39. Subtropical deserts
  40. Temperate forests
  41. Temperate grasslands
  42. Taiga
  43. Tundra
  44. What is a multilayered canopy? Where is it most commonly found?
  45. Do tropical rainforests have seasons? What are they?
  46. Where do tropical rainforests exist?
  47. Give some examples of tropical rainforests (i.e. Congo).
  48. Where are subtropical deserts located?
  49. Why don’t trees grow in temperate grasslands?
  50. Why is fire common in temperate grasslands?
  51. What latitude are temperate forests found? Give some examples.
  52. In taiga, there is low annual precipitation, but high biomass. How is this possible?
  53. Where are tundra biomes found?
  54. What kind of plants live in a tundra?
  55. What is permafrost? Where is it common?
  56. How long is the growing season in the tundra?
  57. Be able to identify the following sections of a lake: littoral zone, limnetic zone, benthic zone, photic zone, aphotic zone.
  58. What types of organisms live in the littoral zone? The limnetic zone? The benthic zone?
  59. How are freshwater wetlands different from ponds?
  60. What is the difference between a bog, a marsh, and a swamp?
  61. How are rivers different from estuaries?
  62. What are the physical differences between the source and mouth of a river?
  63. What are the biological differences between the source and mouth of a river?
  64. How does salinity vary in estuaries?
  65. How do changes in salinity levels affect biological organisms?
  66. What are intertidal zones? How are they different from estuaries? How are they different from coral reefs?
  67. What are the physical characteristics of intertidal zones?
  68. What organisms are most commonly found in intertidal zones?
  69. Where are coral reefs restricted? Why>
  70. Why are coral colored?
  71. Describe the symbiosis between coral and dinoflagellates?
  72. What is the most diverse aquatic ecosystem in the world?
  73. What is the pelagic zone?
  74. What are the physical characteristics of the pelagic zone?
  75. What organisms are common in the photic zone in the open ocean?
  76. What are nekton? Give some examples.
  77. What is the benthic zone? What kind of organisms live there?
  78. What are benthos? Give some examples.