Study guide The Genetic Code: Transcription and Translation


  1. What is the central dogma of molecular biology
  2. Is DNA directly or indirectly translated into proteins?
  3. What is mRNA?
  4. What happens during transcription?
  5. What happens during translation?
  6. What is a genotype?
  7. What is a phenotype?
  8. How are alleles related to the genotype?
  9. How are alleles related to the phenotype?
  10.  How many base pairs code for an amino acid?
  11. What are some exceptions to the dogma of molecular biology?
  12. HIV is a reverse transcriptase. What does that mean?
  13. Other than mRNA, what does DNA code for directly.
  14. How many unique amino acids exist? How many are possible?
  15. What are the 4 RNA nitrogenous bases? How are the similar/different from the DNA bases?
  16. The triplet code is redundant. What does that mean?
  17. What is a codon?
  18. What is a start codon? What is the base pair sequence of the start codon?
  19. What is a stop codon? What are the base pair sequences of the stop codon?
  20. There are 4 properties of “the code”. What are they?
  21. Be able to transcribe and translate a DNA strand into its amino acid sequence, given an amino acid chart.
  22. What are mutations? How do they emerge? What do they create?
  23. What is the difference between a point mutation and a chromosome level mutation?
  24. What is a replacement mutation?
  25. What is a silent mutation?
  26. Are most mutations beneficial, neutral, or deleterious?
  27. There are two kinds of chromosome-level mutations, what are they and how are they different?
  28. In chromosome level mutations: What is polyploidy? Aneuploidy? What is inversion? Translocation?
  29. What is transcription?
  30. What is translation?
  31. What is a template strand? A coding strand?
  32. What enzyme synthesizes mRNA.
  33. How many RNA polymerases do Bacteria have? Eukaryotes?
  34. What is a sigma? How is it related to the RNA polymerase?
  35. What is required for transcription to begin?
  36. Why are the several different types of sigma?
  37. There are 5 steps of the initiation of transcription. What are they (in order)?
  38. What enzyme is working during the elongation phase of transcription?
  39. How does the termination phase of transcription occur?
  40. How is the RNA process different in eukaryotes vs. bacteria?
  41. What is pre-mRNA? What needs to be changed for it to be a functional molecule?
  42. What is an exon? Intron?
  43. What is RNA splicing? Does it happen in bacteria?
  44. Which are removed from pre-mRNA: introns or exons?
  45. How is translation at the ribosomes different for bacterial and eukaryotes?
  46. What is tRNA? What does it do? How is it different than mRNA?
  47. And is an anticodon? Where are the found? How is it related to a codon?
  48. Where does translation take place in a bacterium? A eukaryote?
  49. How are amino acids linked?
  50. What are ribosomes made of? What is their function?
  51. What is the structure of the ribosome? What does the small subunit do? What does the large subunit do?
  52. What 3 steps of translation happen at the ribosome?
  53. What are the 3 steps of the initiation of translation?
  54. What are the 3 steps of the elongation of translation?
  55. What are the 3 steps of the termination of translation?