Chapter 4: How Genes Work

  1. Who came up with the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis?
  2. What is an enzyme?
  3. What is the one gene, one enzyme hypothesis?
  4. Describe the Srb and Horowitz experiment. What hypothesis were they testing testing? What was important about the mutants that they found?
  5. What is the dogma of molecular biology?
  6. Is DNA directly or indirectly translated into proteins?
  7. What did Jacob and Monod propose?
  8. What is mRNA?
  9. What happens during transcription?
  10. What happens during translation?
  11. What is a genotype?
  12. What is a phenotype?
  13. How are alleles related to the genotype?
  14. How are alleles related to the phenotype?
  15. What is the fundamental unit of proteins?
  16.  How many base pairs code for an amino acid?
  17. What are some exceptions to the dogma of molecular biology?
  18. HIV is a reverse transcriptase. What does that mean?
  19. Other than mRNA, what does DNA code for directly.
  20. How many unique amino acids exist? How many are possible?
  21. What are the 4 RNA nitrogenous bases? How are the similar/different from the DNA bases?
  22. The triplet code is redundant. What does that mean?
  23. What is a codon?
  24. What is a start codon? What is the base pair sequence of the start codon?
  25. What is a stop codon? What are the base pair sequences of the stop codon?
  26. There are 4 properties of “the code”. What are they?
  27. Be able to transcribe and translate a DNA strand into its amino acid sequence, given an amino acid chart.
  28. What are mutations? How do they emerge? What do they create?
  29. What is the difference between a point mutation and a chromosome level mutation?
  30. What enzyme is to blame for a point mutation? Who didn’t do their job?
  31. What is a replacement mutation?
  32. What is a silent mutation?
  33. What are the effects of mutations?
  34. Are most mutations beneficial, neutral, or deleterious?
  35. There are two kinds of chromosome-level mutations, what are they and how are they different?
  36. In chromosome level mutations: What is polyploidy? Aneuploidy? What is inversion? Translocation?