Chapter 25: Green Algae and Land Plants

  1. What ecosystem services to plants provide?
  2. Plants are primary producers. What does that mean?
  3. What do plant provide humans?
  4. What is the dominant source of Carbon in the world?
  5. What is the dominant source of energy for living organism in the world?
  6. Where were the following plants domesticated: sunflower, maize, potato, wheat, barley, millet, rice, soybeans?
  7. What is teosinte? And why is it important?
  8. What are the key photosynthetic organisms in freshwater
  9. What are the closest living relatives to land plants?
  10. What similarities (synapomorphies) do green algae have with plants?
  11. What is the difference between a colonial and a multicellular organism?
  12. Which group of algae are the closest living relatives to land plants?
  13. Which group of land plants are the closest living relatives to green algae?
  14. What are the differences between bryophytes (not to be confused with the phylum Bryophyta), seedless vascular plants, and seed plants?
  15. What do vascular tissues do?
  16. What evolutionary advantages did vascular tissue provide vascular plants? Why is vascularity so important?
  17. How are seeds different from spores?
  18. How are gymnosperms different from angiosperms
  19. What is a carpel?
  20. Which group of plants have “naked seeds”?
  21. Which group of plants have “vesseled seeds”?
  22. Which group of plants are known as flowering plants?
  23. What were two of the the earliest adaptations of land plants?
  24. During what geological period is defined by the rise of terrestrial plants?
  25. What are all the major plant adaptations for terrestrial habitats that developed during the Silurian-Devonian explosion?
  26. From a photograph be able to identify the following seedless phyla: Psilophyta, Pterophyta, Sphenophyta, Lycophyta, Bryophyta, and Hepatophyta.
  27. From a photograph be able to identify the major groups of gymnosperms: Cycadophyta, Ginkophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta.
  28. When was the first time that plants blanketed the continents?
  29. What group of plants are grasses, orchids and oaks?
  30. What were two main advantages of growing on land for plants?
  31. What is a cuticle, and why is it important for land plant development?
  32. Why are stomata important in plants? What specialized cells are they made from?
  33. What are the advantages and challenges of upright growth for land plants?
  34. Be able to explain the evolution of vascularity.
  35. What was the primary adaptation for upright growth?
  36. The first vascular cells are distinct from non-vascular plants by the presence of what structural polysaccharide?
  37. How are traheids different from the first vascular tissue?
  38. Tracheids have two cell walls. What is the interior and exterior cell walls made of?
  39. How are vessel elements different from traechids?
  40. Which vascular tissues are the most efficient?
  41. Which vascular tissue is found in all vascular plants?
  42. Which vascular tissue is found only in gentophytes and angiosperms?
  43. What is xylem? Phloem? Remember: xylem up; phloem down.
  44. What are three innovates that evolved for plants to reproduce in dry environments?
  45. Why is it important for seeds to disperse far from their parents?
  46. From a picture, be able to identify what seed dispersal mechanism a seed would employ: wind, animals, water, bursting.
  47. Know all the parts of a flower: stamen, anther, filament, petal, stigma, style, ovary, sepal, ovary, receptacle.
  48. What organism is a red, tubular flower most likely pollinated by? A flower that looks and smells like rotting meat? A purple, blue flower with a landing pad?
  49. List four differences between a monocotyledon and a dicotyledon. Be able to look at pictures of cotyledons, flowers, leafs and vascular tissue (and be able to differentiate between monocot and dicot).
  50. What are cotyledons?