Chapter 18: Evolution and the Origin of Species

  1. What were Plato’s thoughts on organisms?
  2. What does typological thought mean?
  3. What were Aristotle’s thoughts on organisms?
  4. What is meant by “the great chain of being?
  5. What is at the bottom (top) of the great chain of being?
  6. Who was the first to propose the first formal theory of evolution? When?
  7. How did Lamarck agree with Aristotle? How is his theory different?
  8. What is meant by “inheritance of acquired characteristics?”
  9. Who was the first to suggest “survival of the fittest?” (Darwin is not the right answer)
  10. How did Darwin’s travels to the Galapagos frame his concept of natural selection? Specifically, how did the Galapagos finches play a role in this?
  11. Darwin began to think of evolution in population terms, not typological terms. How was this revolutionary?
  12. How would Lamarck argue that Giraffe’s necks became so long? How would Darwin make this argument?
  13. How was Alfred Wallace’s concept of evolution similar to Darwin’s? How was it different?
  14. How did Wallace encourage Darwin to publish On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection?
  15. Why was the Darwin-Wallace theory revolutionary? Why was it so controversial?
  16. What did Darwin mean by “descent with modification?”
  17. What are Darwin’s four postulates of natural selection?
  18. List the evidence of evolution that we currently have that supports the theory of evolution by natural selection.
  19. What evidence did Darwin use to argue that species are dynamic (and not static)?
  20. How are transitional forms evidence of evolution?
  21. List several example of vestigial traits. Why are they there?
  22. How is drug-resistant strains of bacteria evidence of evolution?
  23. What are homologies?
  24. What is the difference between structural, developmental, and genetic homology?
  25. Chickens and human fetuses both have gill pouches. What does that infer?
  26. Is the example of the peppered moth disruptive, stabilizing, or directional selection?
  27. Write an essay from the prompt, “Evolution is not…”