Chapter 23: Prokaryotes - Bacteria and Archaea

  1. Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic. What does that mean?
  2. Be able to draw (and interpret) the phylogenetic tree of the three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
  3. Bacteria are ancient, diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous. What does that mean?
  4. The oldest fossils we have are from which domain of life?
  5. How many species of bacteria have been named? How many are likely?
  6. Where do prokaryotes live?
  7. How much biomass is estimated to be prokaryotic?
  8. How deep in the ocean have prokaryotes been found?
  9. What temperature range can prokaryotes live?
  10. What is meant by pathogenic bacteria?
  11. What Archaean pathogen affects humans?
  12. Who is credited with the Germ theory of disease?
  13. What are Koch’s postulates and what are they used for?
  14. What caused the tremendous decline in mortality rates after 1900?
  15. What is virulence and why is it important to humans?
  16. When were antibiotics discovered? What has been the effects of their overuse?
  17. What is meant by the word “extremophile”?
  18. Name three ways researching extremophiles are important to biologists?
  19. Describe how bacterial species are described?
  20. What is an enrichment culture used for? What is its purpose?
  21. How are bacterial species found using direct sequencing?
  22. What are the steps of the process of direct sequencing?
  23. Who discovered Archaea?
  24. How did Carl Woese redraw the “tree of life”?
  25. Why did the five kingdom of biological classification fall out of favor?
  26.  Are Archaea more closely related to Bacteria or Eukarya?
  27. Which are older: Archaea or Bacteria?
  28. Name three differences between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria?
  29. What is the difference between an autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria?
  30. Were the first bacteria thought to be autotrophic or heterotrophic?
  31. What does a chemoorganotroph eat?
  32. What does a chemolithotroph eat?
  33. What does a photoautotroph eat?
  34. What is the difference between Bacteria and Archaea?