Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules - Study Guide

What is matter?
What are the subatomic particles of an atom?
Which subatomic particles make up the nucleus?
Which subatomic particle defines an element?
What is the signficance of the atomic number?
What is a proton?
What is a neutron?
What is an electron?
What force is responsible for electrons orbiting the nucleus?
What force is responsible binding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus?
What are atoms containing a different number of protons and electrons known as?
What are atoms containing the same number of protons but different number of neutrons known as?
What is the valence shell?
For the element aluminum (Al), determine the number of protons, neutrons, electrons, electron shells , valence electrons.
Which electrons shells are un-reactive and which are reactive?
In general, which elements share chemical properties and why?
In what ways can an atom become energetically stable?
What electron shell has the highest energy level?
How many electrons can occupy the first three electron shells?
When does an atom have maximum energy stability ?
Which group of atoms is unreactive?
In a chemical reaction what are reactants and products ?
What is an endothermic reaction ? An exothermic reaction ?
In an ionic bond, what are atoms that tend to lose electrons known as? Atoms that tend to gain electrons? ?
How many valence electrons do cations and anions typically have?
What charge do cations and anions typically have?
How many reactive and unreactive valence electrons do the following elements have: boron (B) , carbon (C) , nitrogen (N) ?
What is a single bond ? A double bond ?
What is a polar covalent bond ?
How do polar covalent bonds generate partial charges in the atoms bound?
How are polar bonds different from ionic bonds?
Which type of covalent bonds are responsible for hydrogen bonding?
Why is water a liquid ?
Physically, why does ice float? Geometrically, why does ice float?
Why are coastal areas cooler than more inlands area in the summer?
Why do humans sweat?
Why is water a good solvent?
What happens when an ionic molecule is placed in water?
What happens when a polar molecule is placed in water?
Atomically, what makes carbon essential for life?